Westlund Tech Claims Second Law of Thermodynamics is Invalid
Fred Westlund's experiments show that constant temperature ambient heat can be directly converted into electricity.
A review by T. Cullen
Westlund’s experiments are based on an understanding of the difference between charge electrons and orbital electrons. Orbital electrons are bound to atoms and molecules. The Earth has a large number of free electrons that are not part of an atom or molecule. These free electrons are the charge electrons that are found on the surfaces of all masses. They are also the electrons that bounce between the outer rings of a molecule’s orbital electrons. One estimate of the Earth’s charge of free electrons is 2.5 million volts.
At a constant temperature and pressure, the kinetic
energy of electrons is determined by their density. One increases the density by
adding charge electrons on the surface of a mass. This results in the
orbital electrons being pushed closer to their protons. As the density of
electrons is increased, their kinetic energy increases. Their kinetic energy may
be increased by inputting chemical or mechanical energy, and sometimes by
absorbing constant temperature ambient heat (CTAH). If the density (and
kinetic energy) of electrons decreases at constant temperature and pressure, the
number of charge electrons decreases, thus decreasing the kinetic energy
of the orbital electrons. Decreasing the kinetic energy of the orbital
electrons produces work such as electrons flowing through an electric motor or
through the primary coil in a transformer. If the orbital electrons are unable
to produce work, they give off heat as a means of reducing their kinetic energy.
In other words, when gas molecules are compressed, the density (and kinetic energy) of the gas molecules increases, but the density (and kinetic energy) of the orbital electrons in the molecules decreases, and vice versa. In the process, charge electrons can be either released or pulled from the ground.
Experiment: Boiling water produces a voltage
In one experiment, Westlund demonstrates that charge electrons are released when water molecules are evaporated into vapor molecules. He placed distilled water in a Pyrex container and placed a metal stainless steel screen in the water. A grounded volt meter was connected to the metal screen. The water was brought to a boil using a laboratory heater. See Westlund’s drawing #8.
In this experiment, Westlund reports that charge
electrons were released and collected on the screen, then transferred to free
electrons which flowed through the meter to ground. The flow of free electrons
decreased as the rate of evaporation increased. Also, the flow of free electrons
decreased as the rate of boiling decreased, and essentially stopped when the
water stopped boiling. In one test, the boiling water at 204.1°F
registered 103mv on the voltmeter with the heater on. When the heater was turned
off, the voltage went to 127mv. As the water stopped boiling and the temperature
decreased to 194.0°F, he measured 20.2mv. The voltage rapidly decreased as the
water temperature fell: 192.2°F = 4.7mv, 188.6°F = 1.7mv, 185°F (no boiling)
Experiment: Condensing steam is the opposite
Westlund also did another experiment that showed the reverse is also true: that when vapor molecules are converted into water molecules, charge electrons are drawn from the ground to increase the equilibrium charge surrounding newly created water molecules, as shown in his drawing #9.
In this experiment, he condensed water vapor into
liquid and measured the voltage. The vapor molecules were conducted to the
bottom of an inverted stainless steel sealed container through 12ft. nylon
tubes. The boiler was grounded to make sure any measured voltage was coming from
the condensed water vapor.
Experiment: Two pieces of aluminum, one thick (1/4”) and one thin (foil), can produce a voltage
Next, Westlund conducted an experiment entitled “Measuring the Differential Voltage Produced by Thick and Thin Aluminum Plates and the Effect of Reducing the Thickness of the Thin Plate – Westlund’s Patent No. 5,949,176”. He shows that thin plates have a weaker attraction for charge electrons than thick plates of the same material. This difference can produce a measurable voltage. See his drawing #10.
He placed thin sheets of aluminum between two thick plates of aluminum (1/4”), separated with window screen. For thin sheets, he used the thin aluminum foil fused to the paper on commercial sandwich wrap (0.0003”), Reynolds Standard Aluminum Foil (0.0009”), Reynolds Heavy Duty Aluminum Foil (0.0012”), and Standard Aluminum Flashing Material (0.014”). The voltage measured between the thick plate and thin aluminum sheet was adjusted by changing the value of resistors. When the switch was closed, the resistance was changed until the voltage measured by the meter was reduced to +0.1mv. Then the switch was opened and the voltage between points A and B was measured. This voltage was equal to the maximum voltage that was produced by the equilibrium charges on the thick and thin plates. His results showed the following:
To eliminate the criticism that the voltage may have been from different alloys used in the manufacturing of the aluminum sheets, Westlund conducted similar experiments using stacked sheets of the same aluminum instead of ¼” aluminum plates. The results showed that the amount of voltage produced was very small, but measurable. He explains this as stacking thin aluminum sheets is an inefficient means of producing a solid thick aluminum plate because the space between the layers practically eliminates the additional attraction forces of the extra layers.
Experiment: Stacked thick and thin aluminum can produce a voltage
Next, Westlund describes an experiment designed to prove that it is possible to produce a convincing amount of electrical energy using thick and thin aluminum plates. He placed 36 plates of ¼” aluminum in two stacks and separated them with a dielectric material (window screen), a thin sheet of aluminum (0.0003”), followed by another window screen. See his drawing #12.
In this experiment, he connected all the thick plates
together and all the thin plates together and measured the voltage between the
thick and thin plates. He was able to measure 0.15 volts. Westlund points
out that another researcher, Boyd Bushman, has a patent on a similar device that
produces electrical energy in a manner that cannot be explained. Bushman’s
patent (#5,637,946) uses sharp points instead of thin plates. He shows that
using the same metal, sharp points have a weaker attraction for charge electrons
than thick plates. Thus the thick plates stole charge electrons from the sharp
Westlund’s complete report and drawings are available at www.westlundtech.com.
Page composed by Sterling
D. Allan June 25, 2004