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You are here: > News / Exclusives > July 2, 2004

Westlund Tech Claims Second Law of Thermodynamics is Invalid

Fred Westlund's experiments show that constant temperature ambient heat can be directly converted into electricity. 

A review by T. Cullen
Pure Energy Systems News
Copyright © 2004

According to Fred Westlund of Westlund Technology, the Second Law of Thermodynamics can be shown to be invalid with simple experiments that can be reproduced by most researchers without expensive lab equipment. Westlund describes his experiments on his website and in his report “How Lightning Strikes Are Produced and Why the Second Law of Thermodynamics Is Invalid”.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics, a fundamental rule of physics since the 1800’s, basically states that a closed system will remain the same or become more disordered over time, i.e. its entropy always increases. Classic textbooks often show that according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, a device can not take heat from a source and convert it completely into useable work. Also, heat can not be transferred continually from one body to another at a higher temperature without adding more work or energy.  It is the reason a cup of hot water loses its heat to its surroundings, rather than being heated by the air around it. The section of the Second Law that applies to Westlund’s report is the theory that electrical or mechanical energy can be directly converted into heat energy, but the heat energy cannot directly be converted back into electrical or mechanical energy. Westlund claims that this theory is wrong, and that it is possible to reverse the process if the proper technique is used. Westlund’s website states:

We have found several extremely small violations of the “Second Law of Thermodynamics”. It is possible to greatly increase these violations. When they are increased, it will be possible to economically produce mechanical or electrical energy by the direct absorption of “Constant Temperature Ambient Heat”. It will no longer be necessary to supply heat at a higher temperature and discharging the excess heat at a lower temperature. Thus, it will be possible to extract heat from a single source such as the ocean and convert it into usable energy. This will become the World’s primary source of energy.

Westlund’s experiments are based on an understanding of the difference between charge electrons and orbital electrons. Orbital electrons are bound to atoms and molecules. The Earth has a large number of free electrons that are not part of an atom or molecule. These free electrons are the charge electrons that are found on the surfaces of all masses. They are also the electrons that bounce between the outer rings of a molecule’s orbital electrons. One estimate of the Earth’s charge of free electrons is 2.5 million volts. 

At a constant temperature and pressure, the kinetic energy of electrons is determined by their density. One increases the density by adding charge electrons on the surface of a mass. This results in the orbital electrons being pushed closer to their protons. As the density of electrons is increased, their kinetic energy increases. Their kinetic energy may be increased by inputting chemical or mechanical energy, and sometimes by absorbing constant temperature ambient heat (CTAH).  If the density (and kinetic energy) of electrons decreases at constant temperature and pressure, the number of charge electrons decreases, thus decreasing the kinetic energy of the orbital electrons. Decreasing the kinetic energy of the orbital electrons produces work such as electrons flowing through an electric motor or through the primary coil in a transformer. If the orbital electrons are unable to produce work, they give off heat as a means of reducing their kinetic energy.  

Westlund continues to explain in his report what happens when a molecule changes its state. When it goes from a solid to a liquid or from a liquid to a vapor, CTAH is absorbed. Likewise, when it goes from vapor to liquid or liquid to solid, CTAH is rejected.  

If when gas molecules are compressed, the density and kinetic energy of the orbital electrons’ are increased, there would be no rejection of heat. However, if when the gas molecules are compressed their orbital electrons’ density and kinetic energy are decreased, there would be a rejection of heat! This appears to be impossible, but keep in mind the volume occupied by a small gas molecule is very large. There is sufficient volume for them to slightly expand. 

In other words, when gas molecules are compressed, the density (and kinetic energy) of the gas molecules increases, but the density (and kinetic energy) of the orbital electrons in the molecules decreases, and vice versa. In the process, charge electrons can be either released or pulled from the ground. 

Experiment: Boiling water produces a voltage

In one experiment, Westlund demonstrates that charge electrons are released when water molecules are evaporated into vapor molecules. He placed distilled water in a Pyrex container and placed a metal stainless steel screen in the water. A grounded volt meter was connected to the metal screen. The water was brought to a boil using a laboratory heater. See Westlund’s drawing #8.

Drawing 8
click for enlargement

In this experiment, Westlund reports that charge electrons were released and collected on the screen, then transferred to free electrons which flowed through the meter to ground. The flow of free electrons decreased as the rate of evaporation increased. Also, the flow of free electrons decreased as the rate of boiling decreased, and essentially stopped when the water stopped boiling. In one test, the boiling water at 204.1°F registered 103mv on the voltmeter with the heater on. When the heater was turned off, the voltage went to 127mv. As the water stopped boiling and the temperature decreased to 194.0°F, he measured 20.2mv. The voltage rapidly decreased as the water temperature fell: 192.2°F = 4.7mv, 188.6°F = 1.7mv, 185°F (no boiling) = 0.4mv.  

To prove the stainless steel screen was not the cause of the flow of electrons, Westlund removed the water and heated just the screen in air to 120°F. The meter registered 0.4mv. He repeated the experiment using ice. When the ice molecules were melted into water molecules, charge electrons were released and flowed into the ground. The large amount of heat that is absorbed changes the molecule’s structure and attraction force for charge electrons. Thus the equilibrium charge is reduced. 

Experiment: Condensing steam is the opposite

Westlund also did another experiment that showed the reverse is also true: that when vapor molecules are converted into water molecules, charge electrons are drawn from the ground to increase the equilibrium charge surrounding newly created water molecules, as shown in his drawing #9.

Drawing 9
click to enlarge

In this experiment, he condensed water vapor into liquid and measured the voltage. The vapor molecules were conducted to the bottom of an inverted stainless steel sealed container through 12ft. nylon tubes. The boiler was grounded to make sure any measured voltage was coming from the condensed water vapor.  

As with the liquid-to-vapor experiment, a long period of time was required to charge the water and reach a state of equilibrium. After 15 minutes of boiling water, the voltage appeared to stabilize at 70mv. When the water reached 20°C the output voltage decreased to 60mv. In this experiment, the amount of water and the surface area was much greater, so there was a greater loss of the positive charge and the test results were much lower. However, his test results were sufficient to show that when vapor molecules are condensed into water molecules, the equilibrium charge is increased by pulling charge electrons from the ground. 

Experiment: Two pieces of aluminum, one thick (1/4”) and one thin (foil), can produce a voltage

Next, Westlund conducted an experiment entitled “Measuring the Differential Voltage Produced by Thick and Thin Aluminum Plates and the Effect of Reducing the Thickness of the Thin Plate – Westlund’s Patent No. 5,949,176”. He shows that thin plates have a weaker attraction for charge electrons than thick plates of the same material. This difference can produce a measurable voltage. See his drawing #10.

Drawing 10
click to enlarge

He placed thin sheets of aluminum between two thick plates of aluminum (1/4”), separated with window screen. For thin sheets, he used the thin aluminum foil fused to the paper on commercial sandwich wrap (0.0003”), Reynolds Standard Aluminum Foil (0.0009”), Reynolds Heavy Duty Aluminum Foil (0.0012”), and Standard Aluminum Flashing Material (0.014”). The voltage measured between the thick plate and thin aluminum sheet was adjusted by changing the value of resistors. When the switch was closed, the resistance was changed until the voltage measured by the meter was reduced to +0.1mv. Then the switch was opened and the voltage between points A and B was measured. This voltage was equal to the maximum voltage that was produced by the equilibrium charges on the thick and thin plates. His results showed the following:

  • Commercial sandwich wrap = 0.55 volts
  • Reynolds Standard Aluminum Foil = 0.30 volts
  • Reynolds Heavy Duty Aluminum Foil = 0.20 volts
  • Standard Aluminum Flashing Material = 0.02 volts

Westlund states:

A constant electrical voltage was produced. The voltage was too great to be produced by any type of battery that has both plates made out of the same metal. Decreasing the thickness of the thin plate increased the voltage. This is the action that conclusively proves that the voltage was not produced by a battery action. There is no existing explanation for this change in the differential voltage. The different thicknesses of the plates having different attraction forces for charge electrons appears to be the only logical explanation for voltage to increase as the thickness of the thin plate decreased.  

To eliminate the criticism that the voltage may have been from different alloys used in the manufacturing of the aluminum sheets, Westlund conducted similar experiments using stacked sheets of the same aluminum instead of ¼” aluminum plates. The results showed that the amount of voltage produced was very small, but measurable. He explains this as stacking thin aluminum sheets is an inefficient means of producing a solid thick aluminum plate because the space between the layers practically eliminates the additional attraction forces of the extra layers.  

Experiment: Stacked thick and thin aluminum can produce a voltage

Next, Westlund describes an experiment designed to prove that it is possible to produce a convincing amount of electrical energy using thick and thin aluminum plates. He placed 36 plates of ¼” aluminum in two stacks and separated them with a dielectric material (window screen), a thin sheet of aluminum (0.0003”), followed by another window screen. See his drawing #12.

click to enlarge

In this experiment, he connected all the thick plates together and all the thin plates together and measured the voltage between the thick and thin plates. He was able to measure 0.15 volts.  Westlund points out that another researcher, Boyd Bushman, has a patent on a similar device that produces electrical energy in a manner that cannot be explained. Bushman’s patent (#5,637,946) uses sharp points instead of thin plates. He shows that using the same metal, sharp points have a weaker attraction for charge electrons than thick plates. Thus the thick plates stole charge electrons from the sharp points.  

Westlund mentions several other experiments that can easily be done with common materials that show that one can produce electricity directly from heat (constant temperature ambient heat). He ends his report with: 

The “Second Law” can be violated. It has been said that “Once the ‘Second Law’ is violated it is no longer valid. The challenge is to discover, build, test, and patent all of the devices that will economically convert CTAH directly into electrical or mechanical energy.

We have 15 years lead over the rest of the world. We know the principles, and have at least 10 concepts for this type of device. This project is too large for our small research center. We need to join forces with a larger research center. These devices will become the world’s primary source of energy and will stop the pollution of our environment. They will change the world! 

Westlund’s complete report and drawings are available at  


  • "Westlund Tech" <research {at} >

See also

Page composed by Sterling D. Allan June 25, 2004
Last updated December 24, 2014





"It is harder to crack a prejudice than an atom." // "I'd rather be an optimist and a fool than a pessimist and right." -- Albert Einstein

ADVISORY: With any technology, you take a high risk to invest significant time or money unless (1) independent testing has thoroughly corroborated the technology, (2) the group involved has intellectual rights to the technology, and (3) the group has the ability to make a success of the endeavor.
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   First, it is ridiculed;
   Second, it is violently opposed; and
   Third, it is accepted as self-evident.

-- Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

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